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What is a camshaft?
The camshaft (English: Camshaft) is a component in the engine. Its role is to control the opening and closing of the valve. Although in a four-stroke engine, the camshaft rotates at half the speed of the crankshaft (in the two-stroke engine, the camshaft rotates at the same speed as the crankshaft), the speed is usually very high, and it needs to withstand large torques. The camshaft has high requirements in terms of strength and support. Its material is generally special cast iron, and occasionally forgings are also used. Because the valve movement law relates to the power and running characteristics of an engine, the camshaft design occupies a very important position in the engine design process.
The main body of the camshaft is a cylindrical rod body of the same length as the cylinder block. Above the set of several cams, used to drive the valve. One end of the camshaft is the bearing support point and the other end is connected to the drive wheel.
The side of the cam is egg-shaped. The purpose of its design is to ensure sufficient intake and exhaust of the cylinder, specifically to complete the valve opening and closing in the shortest possible time. In addition, taking into account the durability of the engine and the smoothness of operation, the valve cannot be excessively impacted due to the acceleration and deceleration processes during the opening and closing operations. Otherwise, it will cause severe valve wear, noise increase, or other serious consequences. Therefore, there is a direct relationship between the cam and the engine's power, torque output, and running smoothness.
In general, in the in-line engine, one cam corresponds to one valve, and the V-type engine or the horizontally-opposed engine shares one cam per two valves. Because of its special structure, the rotary engine and the valveless engine do not need a cam.